More notes at http://tanguay.info/learntracker
C O U R S E 
Letters of the Apostle Paul
Laura Nasrallah, Harvard University
C O U R S E   L E C T U R E 
Slavery and Freedom in Roman Corinth
Notes taken on May 25, 2015 by Edward Tanguay
slavery and freedom
1 Corinthians 6:20
"You were bought with a price"
1 Corinthians 7:17, 21-24
"For he who was called in the Lord as a slave is a freedperson of the Lord. Likewise s/he who was free when called is a slave of Christ. You were bought with a price, do not become slaves of humans."
1 Corinthians 9:19
"For though I am free from all, I have made myself slave to all, in order that I might win the more."
1 Corinthians 1:11
"It's been reported to me by Chloe's people."
146 BCE Corinth was destroyed
Roman general Mummius had been appointed to take command of the Achaean War
all the men of Corinth were put to the sword, the women and children were sold into slavery, and the statues, paintings and works of art were seized and shipped to Rome
Corinth was then reduced to ashes
the Roman senate wanted to dispel a dangerous commercial rival
44 BCE refounded as a Roman colony by Julius Caesar
then again emerged as a leading city on the Peloponnese [Πελοπόννησος]
became great again under Augustus
became capital of senatorial Roman province Achaia
lay on trade route which connected ancient Attica to the Peloponnese
ports Lechaion to north and Kenchreai to the south
near town of Isthmia
where Isthmian Games were held
since the games' inception, Corinth had always been in control of them
after Caesar rebuilt Corinth in 44 BC, Corinth recovered ownership of the Games between 7 BC and AD 3 AD
the games continued until Theodosius (347-395), the last emperor to rule over both the eastern and the western halves of the Roman Empire, and the emperor who establishes Christianity as Rome's State Religion
to transfer ships from the Saronic Gulf to the Gulf of Corinth, ships had to deal with Corinth
controlled a 7-meter paved roadway called the Diolkos
allowed oxen to drag ships or cargo across
lay between two ports
1 Corinthians mention prostitution and women who were prophets
some argue that the city was a metropolitan hotbed of urban sins
archeological evidence doesn't indicate that Corinth was anything unusual
no greater freedom for women
no cultural constitution of prostitution
some assume that the apostles came to correct or bleach out this culture context than to work within it
was important to Rome
official inscriptions were in Latin
unofficial inscriptions were in Greek
statue of Augustus
may have been a statue located in the Julian hall
toga is pulled over Augustus' head like a veil
indicates that the emperor is offering a sacrifice
right hand probably held a patera
this motif of veiling was associated with Augustus' role of pontifex maximus
a function he assumed in 12 BCE
the statue may date from that year to the year 14 CE when he died
reminds us of two things
1. Roman power was manifest in the Corinthian forum
veiling of a man's head indicated his piety before the gods, his correct ritual practice
2. in 1 Corinthians 11, Paul says that only women should be veiled when they pray or prophesy, while men should not be
Roman Corinth
repopulated not by military veterans, but by ex-slaves
coins from the first century CE that a mix of freed men and traders populated the city
Caesar made exceptions for colonies he founded
ex-slaves may have been very rich
tied by a patronage system to their masters in Rome
conducted business on their masters behalf
a place of potential social and upward mobility
those of low status could attain status and wealth
we find benefactors and gifts from free persons
Gnaius Babbius Philinus
pontifex, i.e. priest
held important, governmental offices in Corinth
at the time of the coalescing of the Corinthian Ecclesia
benefactor of the fountain of Poseidon
two inscriptions include an "L", an abbreviation for "libertus", or freed men
freed persons and their children could advance socially