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C O U R S E 
A History of the World since 1300
Jeremy Adelman, Princeton University
C O U R S E   L E C T U R E 
Migration after the Age of Revolutions
Notes taken on March 10, 2016 by Edward Tanguay
Marx and de Tocqueville argued a new world was coming into being
a new logic was at work
logic that had capabilities of spreading beyond Europe
beyond even the European colonies
had the ability to resolve some of the tensions around
political systems looking for legitimacy
economic systems dislocating peoples
widen the possibility for internal social mobility
drawing the world closer together under new principles of freedom
intensifying the collapsing of the global space
after the Age of Revolution (1774 to 1848)
land grab nurtured by these new principles
newly independent countries and countries acquiring independence
lands not yet used by humans yet could be harvested to economic advantage
from the United States to Brazil and New Zealand, we see a much more systematic colonization of new lands
1750-1900: land transformation
1.5 and 2 billion acres of the world arable land was turned into commercially exploited farmlands
a dramatic transformation
the West in Canada and the United States accounted for France and Italy and other countries put together
this windfall was fueled by global migration
some involuntary
10 and 12 million African slaves were moved to the New World to become a kind of farmer
one by one Latin America and then the United States abolished slavery
the doctrine of free labor would triumph over the doctrine of slave labor
a different source of workers
workers and families coming from Europe
origin of these migrants
Irish Potato Famine (1845-1849)
exodus of the Irish to Argentina, the United States and Canada
a massive reshuffling of the global population
connecting commercially specialized areas of the globe together in synergistic economic relationships
free flows of commodity and the free flow of ideas
the formation of a market for labor
we had markets for capital
we had markets for land
now we have markets and the commodification of labor
people get pushed out into the world to sell their labor for a wage
began to seek out opportunities elsewhere to seek out higher returns
between 1871 and 1914, 36 million Europeans left
two-thirds went to the United States
many went to Canada, Argentina and Brazil
associated with crises in the agrarian system
the frontier safety valve the de Tocqueville was looking for
but Europeans were not the only source of labor
8 million Chinese leave the mainland to Indonesia alone
India was the single most exporter of people
moved seasonally
moved away and then moved back
1870-1914: 16 million Indians left the subcontinent
many returned
many moving around inside the British Empire
indeed Indians became important in pulling the British Empire together
populated new areas e.g. in the Sindh region of what is now Pakistan
important for meeting Russian expansion into Uzbekistan and the other areas sound of Russia
networks of merchants
setting up shops from Cairo to Panama
a capitalist global diaspora
origins in the Sindh area of modern Pakistan
this massive migration was at the expense of indigenous populations
Manifest Destiny
1872 painting, leading people, European migrants ever Westward
carrying a telegraph line
the book is a school book
coined during the American-Mexican war of the 1840s
creating opportunities for migrants