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C O U R S E 
A History of the World since 1300
Jeremy Adelman, Princeton University
C O U R S E   L E C T U R E 
Factors Which Led to the Solidifying of Nation States
Notes taken on November 16, 2015 by Edward Tanguay
irony of the mid-19th century
while naturalists such as Darwin were emphasizing the commonness of human kind
societies were going about creating national identities which separated us from each other
claimed that there were some fundamental differences between members of different nations
these differences increasing took on the language of race
it's was difficult to separate out the language of race from the language of nationalism
new icons of political authority
emerged as the great figure for 19th century nation builders
for Muhammad Ali Pasha in Egypt
for the Greeks
for the Mughal authority in India
for Bolivar in South America
we have to build a state, which can generation a nation
didn't believe necessary in these essential differences between races
argue that these identities are the constructions of state power, they don't construct state power
rather it is the ability of state powers to be deployed to create national identities
rejecting the notion that argues that national identities are rooted in differences between peoples
wanted to make societies out of populations that were mixed races, mixed religions, and mixed peoples
others believe that nations came first, then the state
German and Italian nationals would use language of race to justify entities such as Germany and Italy
national identities emerge and from these these identities we get new institutions and we call them sates
that national differences beleived to be rooted in some primordial difference between peoples
looking to Napolean's assertive nation building
national building by state formation
national builders used scientific discoveries to explain differences between peoples
explained that nations therefore need to protect and husband these races in the name of the nation
challenge for nation building
a sense of common, homogenous communities to replace what was once called empires
moving from the multiple entities of empires to single identities
from local identities to national identities
national building needed three conditions
1. the power of the state
military power
public education systems
propagate new concepts of civic ideas
birth of new national histories
create an image of a shared past
based on a collective experience
state education
the vote became a very important civic exercise on the part of members of these nation states to cast ballots proclaiming their secular faith in these new models of national authority, to give legitimacy to these new regimes called nation states
2. the power of communication
disseminating visions of state authority and national power among the communities in the country
images were important throughout this century for creating national identity
newspapers, magazines, and radio
instruments for creating identify
press revolution and the spread of the market place for the consumption of images
authors writing on these topics begin to make money by being writers
early examples were Encyclopédie and Wealth of Nations
create horizontal comradeship of fellow readers reading the national news to create and spread the idea of the nation
3. the power of transportation
steam, canals, railroads function importantly as instruments to connect up parts of societies which were previously disarticulated from each other
one could move from town to town, village to village with much more facility
railroads integrated societies into national market places
these three factors integrated the spacial parts of something new, something called a nation