More notes at http://tanguay.info/learntracker
C O U R S E 
The Modern World: Global History since 1760
Prof. Philip Zelikow, University of Virginia
C O U R S E   L E C T U R E 
1947 China: Undesirable Communists vs. Flawed Nationalists
Notes taken on May 22, 2014 by Edward Tanguay
two revolutionary models forming in Asia
1. Guomindang (GMD)
also known as: Kuomintang (KMT)
Chinese Nationalist Party
current ruling political party in Taiwan
had started as a revolutionary party in the 1920s
national conservative
top-down modernizer
the restorer of ancient Chinese traditions
United States takes a lead in sponsoring Nationalist China as a future great power
China should be a permanent member of the new United Nations
1943 summit between Roosevelt, Churchill and Chiang
2. Chinese Communist Party (CCP)
Mao Zedong
both of these backed by international power, though the Soviet Union sought relations with the Guomindang as well
Chinese Civil War 1927-1950
not very well understood
which is fairly puzzling since the fate of China, the most populous country on earth, is clearly very important in world history
an obscure patch of extremely important history
1947 in the midst of the civil war
if you had been taking bets, most people would have told you that the communists were a lot of trouble but the nationalists were bound to win
communists getting some supplies from Soviet Union
while trying to defeat the communists, the nationalists are moving their capital from Chongqing to Nanjing, since much of China had been occupied by Japan who had subsequently left
trying to fight war and rebuild state
lands ravaged by years of warfare
overextended, economic base is fragile
not sound basis for currency
Nationalists using American supplies to gain control along the Yangtze River as well as Manchuria with its vital industry
communists know that the key lies in Manchuria
Russians have occupied Manchuria through surrender terms with Japan
communists get Japanese military equipment and arms
George Marshall sent to China
received by Chiang Kai-shek
invites communist delegation
January 1946: agree to an American suggested truce: federal government permitting the two parties to govern regions currently held, free speech, resolve issue through dialogue and not fighting
within two months, troops are on the move again
100 savage skirmishes flare to full-scale war
Manchuria is the main point of struggle, the industry that Japan had built and left is the prize both sides fought for
Chiang's troops seize all cities but find a hollow triumph
Russian occupiers have looted everything factory before withdrawal
Mao Zedong lead guerrilla bands into formal armies
said that everyone in future China would have free speech except for enemies of the people, which turned out to mean: anyone who disagreed with him
1946 Chiang returns government to Nanjing
historically visits Sun Yat-sen mausoleum
Chiang convenes congress to write a modern constitution as Sun Yat-sen had advised, but Chiang's power is militaristic
with American arms, he feels the communists can be crushed
the turning point of the war
1947 Soviet Union commit themselves to communist victory
Marshall had been disillusions with the National government
stopped supporting the Nationalists as they had been
continued to sell them arms for cash in a situation where the Chinese didn't have much money
were giving away simply equipment that they couldn't use
Wedemeyer report: Nationalists have flaws, but we need to back them with money and arms and strategy
Marshall quashes this report
decides to let things play out in China however they will, and concentrate on Europe
1948 decisive differences
Moscow ups its play
Mikoyan's mission to communist China
Anastas Mikoyan is top Soviet
Chinese communists lavish him, say Soviet Union is the model for them
Mao is afraid America is going to intervene soon, which turn out to be unrealistic
congress is very worried about China
Marshall says: we need to support Europe more than China, but makes a deal to do both
but the help is too late
second half of 1948 Nationalists begin to lose decisive battles
1949 communists conquer all of China
you have to think of what a momentous development this is
if you are thinking about a struggle to contain communism, you've just failed to contain communism in the most populous country on earth
a country that is a potential pivot in the course of world history
in addition, it's created a whole model for revolutionary change
come out of countryside
organized the peasants
land reform
Mao gets together to celebrate Stalin's birthday
talk about the possibilities
Korea: low-grade civil war going on with a Soviet-sponsored regime in the north, and an American supported regime in the south
Taiwan: Chiang has fled here and Mao wants to launch an invasion across the straits
Indochina: Viet Minh in north are seeking support from China and Soviet Union in battle against South Vietnam and French
Philippines: American supported government with rebellion of the Huks (Hukbalahap)
Indonesian: strong communist party
America's point of view
hope that the Chinese will become more nationalist than communist and come to disagree with the Soviets
America's experience with China
you like the Nationalist government of China, but it is deeply flawed, so what do you do
1. bolster them hoping to get them to fix flaws
2. abandon them to their fate
good arguments for both