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C O U R S E 
A History of the World since 1300
Jeremy Adelman, Princeton University
C O U R S E   L E C T U R E 
19th Century Pan-Islam and Zionism Movements
Notes taken on December 2, 2016 by Edward Tanguay
late 19th century reform and adaptation
many projects to create new nations
sometimes creating new nations out of old empires
a new vocabulary for describing political communities
a collection of faiths, languages, and families governing on the ground
imagining a nation was not the only respond to political pressures
the pan-movements
many began to imagine political communities which transcended nations
pan-African movement
not all ideas translate in the nation-state
argued that they spoke for all believers
a nostalgia for a time when all members of a belief cohabited under one sacred roof
integrated by faith, not by language, nation, ethnicity, not even geography
to be ruled by a sultan or a latter-day caliph
calling for the defense of Islam against the expanding Christian leaders
Jamāl al-Dīn al-Afghānī (1839–1897)
important mystic arguing for a this different model of utopia
claimed to be an Afghani
in fact he was from Iran
didn't want to be identified as a Shiite
1884 moved to Paris
began publishing an Arabic newspaper in Paris entitled al-Urwah al-Wuthqa, "The Indissoluble Link"
called for a return to the original principles and ideals of Islam, and for greater unity among Islamic peoples
an alternative vision of what politics might look like in the Islamic world
hearkening back to older models of dynasty
sought to redeem an older, universal ideal
unlike pan-Islam, Zionists had no state
they had a nation of Jews
but nowhere on the globe could you find a Jewish state
that had been eradicated from the time of the Roman Empire
the idea was one of return
a return to a homeland called Zion, lost in previous millennia
a social and political act to remedy the problems of being a minority in a diaspora
facing rising nationalism
Russian nationalism in the 1880s and its pogroms
a place where they might project their idea of a nation which would return Jews to an ancient homeland
this experience of being stateless in someone else's state nurtured Zionism
to return home, required creating a home
most Jews lived scattered around the world
ideology precedes and created reality
just as in pan-Islam, it begins with major, prophetic figures
Zvi Hirsch Kalischer (1795-1874)
was an Orthodox German rabbi who expressed views in favor of the Jewish re-settlement of the Land of Israel
taking on messianic qualities
Theodor Herzl (1860-1904)
an Austro-Hungarian journalist, playwright, political activist, and writer
one of the fathers of modern political Zionism
formed the World Zionist Organization and promoted Jewish migration to Palestine in an effort to form a Jewish state
seen as a kind of latter-day, secular Moses leading his people back home
the Hebrew language is a new language
it existed only as one would read in the Bible and sacred texts
his message had to appeal to the many international Jews
we will find our moral bearing by farming the Holy Land again
many settlers began to return to Palestine, which was a province of the Ottoman Empire
began to buy up land from the native Arab populations
by 1914 some 60,000 Jews had returned and began to buy up, mainly the coastal lands of what is now Israel
we see around Jerusalem an envisioning of rival models of a homeland for a people who had been bereft of a state
they wanted a state carved out of the precincts of an ancient empire
land will become the focal point for tensions for the incumbent and incoming groups in Palestine