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C O U R S E 
A History of the World since 1300
Jeremy Adelman, Princeton University
C O U R S E   L E C T U R E 
1894-1905: Japan's Imperial Wave in Asia
Notes taken on October 11, 2016 by Edward Tanguay
there was expansion not only in Europe and the Americas, but in East Asia as well
1868 Meiji [MAY-gee] Restoration
a chain of events that restored practical imperial rule to Japan in 1868 under Emperor Meiji
powerful army trained by Prussian officers
powerful navy modeled on British expertise
Port of Edo
today the Port of Tokyo
navy displayed their power with new technology such as a set off hot balloons
acquired 12 modern war ships
although not the battleships that would become famous in the 1890s
like Europe and the United States, Japan was looking beyond its boundaries for new colonies for two reasons
1. symbolism of power and control
2. security
one Prussian military advisor noted to his Japanese colleagues that Korea resembled a dagger pointed at the heart of Japan
Korea was a tributary state in Beijing's orbit
Japanese saw Korea as an opportunity to secure territories for primary product production
imports to Japan
grains in Manchuria
Japanese drew commodities
Japan was on a collision course with China
China had a very large army and navy
China was different from the Europeans looking at Africa
different from how the United States spanked Spain in the Philippines and in Cuba
Japan had to go up against a traditional and relative powerful neighbor
China's army and navy were large by antiquated
poor morale
could not field the modern weaponry and tactics that Japanese could
broken chain of command within the Chinese military
1894 war finally erupted
China was quickly trounced
most of China's fleet was sunk
so impossible to hang on to the Korean peninsula
atrocities committed by Japanese troops
looked upon the Chinese and Koreans as racially inferior
race gets tied into imperial expansion
November 1894 Port Arthur massacre
6,000 soldiers killed leaving 36 behind to bury the cadavers
a pattern in imperial expansion
this was humiliating to China
Korea became a dependency of Japan
later annexed to Japan
Chinese forced to sign agreement
Japan was allowed to trade all the way up the Yangtze River
China had to make onerous indemnity payments
one of the first filmed wars
struggle was not over in the 1890s
the arrival of Japan destabilized the balance of forces in East Asia
compelled the Russians to intensify their race toward the Pacific
to thwart Japanese advancement
Russia had designs on the Pacific
expanding into Persia
Persia empire was a hobbled one
British empire in India bearing down on Persian state as well
The Great Game
1901 Kipling, "Kim"
using railroads as a weapon to penetrate into Persia
the railroad to Baghdad
access to oil and pipelines
1907 Anglo-Russian Convention
the partition of Persia into two spheres of influence
identified respective control in Persia, Afghanistan, and Tibet
neither country would interfere in Tibet’s internal affairs
recognized Britain's influence over Afghanistan
settled the scores for a time between Britain and Russia
both were concerned about German expansion
a looming tension between Russia and Japan
two emerging empires
Port Arthur
gateway for Russians to Pacific
access from Baltic Sea to Pacific
not unlike the United States
Trans-Siberian Railroad
1891 Vladivostok
1904 Russo-Japanese War
Japanese war ships attacked Russians in Port Arthur
Japanese knew they had to be swift and decisive
before Russians that came via the Suez Canal
could avoid Africa
also because of the Trans-Siberian Railroad
first full-scale naval battle in modern
the Russian Pacific fleet was annihilated in one day, May 1905
losing 8 battleships in one encounter
like China, Russia was deeply humiliated
sought its revenge in the Second War War
Japan triumphant in the Pacific
Russia and China are left defeated with fiscal problems
both then reformed
by 1900 the world map had changed
rising nationalism did not expel the impulses of empire
free trade did not put an end to the idea of foreign intervention
empires increasingly jostled from Java to the Amazon