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C O U R S E 
A History of the World since 1300
Jeremy Adelman, Princeton University
C O U R S E   L E C T U R E 
Napoleon, New Nations, and Total War
Notes taken on May 18, 2015 by Edward Tanguay
with kings and queens no longer seen as the custodians of sovereignty
who is going to protect these human rights?
how would societies protect these rights?
it was the nation which was the new place in which sovereignty was being invested
the nation would protect the rights of the citizens of the nation
everyone in the nation was equally endowed with these rights
the presumption was a basic homogeneity
we are all members of the nation and basically similar
with some important exceptions
people of color
seen more as wards, i.e. people under guardianship
how did the concept of rights and their location, i.e. in each member of the nation, affect total war?
in older regimes, armies were dominated by the aristocracies
soldiers would be forced or pressed into service
with nations, armies became popular
instead of paying people to fight, you had members of the nation who volunteered to fight
the notion of a nation in arms was created
1813 The German Nation in Arms
painter: von Gustav Graef
popular resistance to the invasion
volunteers going off to fight in the defense of the Prussian nation against the French
in the painting, you see a Jewish man going off to fight
mother uneasy about her son going off to war
citizens were obligated to join the army by virtue of being citizens
old regimes had relied on paid mercenaries or forced soldiers to do battle
did not have the ability to draw upon the bodies and lives of its people to fight their wars, but the new regimes did
a consequence of that would be to raise the stakes
the escalation of total war draws a tighter line between insider and outsider
it has taken a long time to accept the general idea of pluralism within the concept of citizenship
each war is seen as a process of creating a nation full of citizens
riding it from threats from without and exceptions from within
it's ironic that this age that abolishes torture and slavery, yet increases the scale and scope of warfare
this concept of total war reached its acme
marched into Russia with 600,000 soldiers
returned with 80,000
in Spain he sent 500,000 troops
only a fraction returned
nation in arms fighting other nations in arms
the last time the world had seen armies of this scale was 1000 years earlier in China
we won't see international war on this scale for another century
as the Napoleonic wars swept across the world
this compelled all who were involved from the Ottomans and later the Mexicans to invoke the defense of their political community in the name of their nation against the other invading nation
the carnage became a redemptive struggle for national defense
the paradox at the heart of this dynamic
the rise of new rights coincides with increasing repressive power obtained through the fighting machines controlled by the new governments of these new nations
a combination of liberty and lethality