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C O U R S E 
A History of the World since 1300
Jeremy Adelman, Princeton University
C O U R S E   L E C T U R E 
Napoleon, Spain, the Colonies, and Imperial Crises
Notes taken on April 23, 2015 by Edward Tanguay
the birth of nations, like the United States, perhaps the first nation, was the effect of global, imperial crises, not the cause of it
colonies had built up first national identity and they want to be free from their colonial masters
the story of the freedom of the United States and the separation from the British Empire has family resembles to other theaters around the world
the English were not the only empire dealing with internal conflicts and a global crisis of the fiscal military state
imperial powers were plunging themselves into a situation where they could not fiscally maintain the colonist land grab which pitted themselves against each other
the French had not only lost the Seven Years War but they had gone out and bankrolled the American colonists' separation from England which led to intense debt problems
the debt problem was so big that Louis the XVI that he called the Estates General together to talk about ideas to reduce the debt
broke open a debate on the same topic that concerned the American colonists: no taxation without representation
regimes built up over centuries now gets brought into these issues
how to harness resources from the people to support this escalation of costs to support the colonists
18th century, a new kind of total war
war to the death of regimes and entire peoples
later in the 19th century, the concept of "ethnic cleansing" comes about
people bound themselves together as a nation
duty-bound to defend that nation against external or internal threat
total war is a new form of imperial war
Napoleon capitalizes on this movement and mobilizes "the French people" to uphold certain concepts against other regimes
in the west against Spain
a war between peoples, not between kingdoms anymore
in the east against Russia, after 1814
begins to shake up geo-political relations around the world
theaters of this new kind of total war
Peninsular Wars
as the French army moved into Spain and got bogged down
this became a war of peoples against peoples
Goya's paintings
the people, themselves become the exercising of mass, political violence
54,000 troops to Egypt
with a retinue of archeologists, scientists, artists, and writers
Napolean knew by this stage that if you were going to go to war, let's write about it, let's create epics as we're going along, this was a PR opportunity
won series of battles in Italy
wants to cut off the route that British use as access to India
the prize colony of the British Empire
take advantage of what is perceived to be a weak Ottoman force
believed that France needed new imperial foundations
not colonies
but liberated territories
why Egypt?
"Great reputations are only made in the Orient because Europe is too small."
success against the Mamluk armies
Mamluk dynasty of Iraq (1704–1831, under Ottoman Iraq)
the battle of the pyramids
led to collecting and gathering of materials that would be shipped back to France
did not lead to a French toe hold in the Middle east
in fact, set into motion a debate in the Middle East
how the Ottomann Empire was going to respond to the threat of the French by reinventing itself as a nation
1803: Napoleon sold Louisiana to the United States
1804: lost Saint-Domingue
500,000 African slaves toiled on the plantations
when the French Revolution erupts in the name of representation and the universality of rights and the idea that all people are born free
slaves said: why not us?
why are we exempt from these universal laws
1792 slaves in Saint-Domingue claimed these rights for themselves
an insurrection over membership in the political community
by 1800, island in full slave revolt
1804, the insurrectionists declared their freedom
not without a horrible violence and desecration of bodies
result was a cascade on the slave trade
Europeans began to debate the legality and justification of the slave trade
Britain banned the slave trade
U.S. outlawed the importation of slaves
the old models of commercial networks that held the Atlantic world together were beginning to break up
Iberian empires
Napoleon after losing Louisiana and Haiti set sights on Iberia
invaded Spain and Portugal
colonies in Latin America participated in discussion of who got rights in these socially stratified colonies
Simón Bolívar (1783-1830)
"The Liberator"
like George Washington against the British, led a series of campaigns against Spanish armies
a war within a war
realized that the only way to win this war against the Spanish was to begin to free the slaves
not just free them but give them weapons to fight and give them rights
1821-1822 breakaway of the colonies from their Spanish and Portuguese motherlands
government in Iraq that Napoleon fought against
Mamluk dynasty of Iraq (1704–1831, under Ottoman Iraq)