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C O U R S E 
A History of the World since 1300
Jeremy Adelman, Princeton University
C O U R S E   L E C T U R E 
1899-1911 The End of the Qing Dynasty
Notes taken on June 1, 2017 by Edward Tanguay
China face threats from inside and out
over the course of the 19th century, China was forced to sign humiliating treaty concessions to external powers
also participated in slowly dismantling the sovereignty of the Chinese empire
was never fully colonized
the cost of colonizing was high
foreign powers could get the regime to do some of the dirty work of controlling local populations
informal empire
treaties built into it to hobble the Chinese state
market and non-state forces were used to sap and drain the Chinese empire of its sovereignty and power
led to a wave of unrest against the Chinese government for giving in to too many concessions to foreigners
against both the external forces as well as the Chinese state
1899-1901 The Boxer Rebellion
boxers would go after the symbols of the West
telegraph wires
foreign embassies
the reorganization of time came with the advent of capitalism, the assembly line, the routinization of life
a foreign emblem in the middle of communities to organize their societies
named after the spirit boxers
fighter claimed to be immune to swords and spears
The Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists
had mass-organizing skills
Qing regime responded with some ambivalence
saw this as an opportunity for the boxers to do the dirty work of making life hard for foreigners in China
but a dangerous game to play
if the boxers got too much power, they could claim authority that would be very hard to roll back
because the Qing state was so weak, the Boxer Rebellion got out of control
despite the calls for the Qing state to intercede, they could not in the end
the Boxers soon let their supporters go well beyond what the Qing authorities to control
foreign powers decided to take it upon themselves to put down the rebellion that the Qing state didn't want to or could not put down
the Qing state they did not have the repressive capacity to contain the Boxer Rebellion
foreign troops were dispatched to China
half came from Japan
eight different countries sent armies to China to wage a war against the insurgents
this led to vast repression
foreign powers used the occasion to demand yet more concessions from the Qing state
including indemnity payments
sent a bill to the Qing state to pay for the process of oppression
the paradox of reform
the impulse to change happens when one does not have the political space or room to do so
it's the easiest to reform when you have the least incentive to reform
1991 the collapse finally came
the overthrow of the Manchu rule that had been born in the 17th century
replaced with a Republican form of rule
the end of a series of dynasties that had lasted, with interruptions, that had endured over 2000 years
created a constitution
giving citizens new rights
need to legitimate the new regime
without the principle loyalties to a royal family
the architect of this new reform spirit
Sun Yat Sen (1866-1925)
what Pyotr Stolypin was for Russian, Sun Yat Sen was for China