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C O U R S E 
A History of the World since 1300
Jeremy Adelman, Princeton University
C O U R S E   L E C T U R E 
The End of WWI and the Attempt at Global Peace
Notes taken on May 27, 2018 by Edward Tanguay
after WWI ended, the nations were faced with the task of rebuilding the core at the center of the world system
tried to patch up the differences they had
some envisioned a world that would put an end to the conflicts that had given rise to the First World War
an idea put forth as the war ground down: this should be a war to end all wars
this was the spirit, albeit not well proportioned, of the men who gathered in Versailles in France in 1919
imagined and discussed &global& peace
Woodrow Wilson was the hero of the day
particularly in France
treated the entrance of the United States in the war as one of the moments that would rescue France
sought to design a new world system
shared several principles:
1. international trade system had to be restored
the change for peace would be better the more there was a global economy
restore the gold standard
the center of that global economy in the 19th century was London and Britain, using the pound
but Britain now had large debts to its dominions and to the United States now
it was unclear how this gold standard would get its moorings
inhibited by high inflation rates
restore trade
trade imbalances inhibited this
there was no more center to the world economy
no plagued by debts
this was never completely resolved
2. the central powers would be demilitarized
3. begin the process of dismantling old empires
Woodrow Wilson: inter-imperial rivalry had been the cause of conflict
dismantle the empires because empires seek war
democratic nation-states are the anchorage for peace
self-determined nation-states should be rules by constitutional democracy
create protectorates
create nation-states out of the old
Hapsburg Empire
Ottoman Empire
colonies were entrusted to become protectorates and mandates
1917 Lord Balfour declared that new states would be created in this zone, and until then these states would become protectorates
to govern all of this, there would be a new meta-institution for the world called the League of Nations
to prevent future conflicts
it was a Utopian architecture
met resistance from the United States
isolationists believed that the United States
the United States Congress refused to ratify the treaty that would give rise to the league of nations
this was quite different than the decision by the United States in 1945 at the end of WWII
while the League of Nations was approved, the United States was not a member
from the beginning, the league of nations was a hobbled organization
there arose a spectre of violence and rising racialized genocide
WWI was also an internal war among empires
Gandhi and others in India became increasingly active again the suppression in India
the English economy had become quite dependent on India and needed it to support the war effort
the empire was 40% larger than Britain itself
1915 Defense of India Act
an emergency criminal law enacted by the Governor-General of India with the intention of curtailing the nationalist and revolutionary activities during and in the aftermath of the First World War.
especially severe in the Punjab and Bengal
by 1918, Britain had over 2 million Indian soldiers in combat and non-combat unions
extermination was more sever in the Ottoman Empire
mass killing of Armenian Christians
Ottomans lived in fear
the Dardanelle Straits had been blockaded
the Russians had invaded the Ottoman Empire
there was concern of non-Turkish people to the Ottoman effort
Greeks, Jews, and especially Christian Armenias were targeted for oppression
Turkey felt it had to purge itself of foreign elements
foreigners inside Turkey was a problem for Turkey itself
Yusuf Akçura: "Turkishness is a brotherhood born of race."
started concentration camps
soon billowed into an extermination campaign
goal was to eradicate the Christian presense
began in 1915
Armenians gathered together in camps
something more macabre and sinister
how do you tell the story of the hanged and executioners
how do you tell the story where the executioners pose for the photographer in front of those they hanged
600,000 - 1,000,000 Armenians were slaughtered or died
the world had not yet seen a mass killing of non-combatants on this scale before
90% of the Armenian population was eliminated
WWI was in a sense like a giant onion: conflicts within villages that would escalate outward into large conflicts and eventually a war among empires and brutality between states
so a war of this constitution and magnitude was not a war to end all wars
in some ways, we are still trying to cope with its aftermath