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C O U R S E 
A History of the World since 1300
Jeremy Adelman, Princeton University
C O U R S E   L E C T U R E 
Transition in India: Last of the Mughals
Notes taken on September 10, 2015 by Edward Tanguay
mid-19th century India
a story that braids together the stories of
the railroad
the Enfield rifle
the political shifts that are being imposed on the subcontinent
the protracted crisis in India is in contrast to what is happening in the United States
two major cotton exporters faced with two very different political fortunes
the pressures mounting for free market forces unleashed by the dismantling of old, mercantile states
the Americas
a series of European conquests
the Spanish, the Portuguese and the English
colonized, dismantled, and drove underground many of the incumbent systems
1833 East India Company still enjoyed exclusive monopoly privileges in India
but increasing forced to compete with other merchants
a stimulus for the arrival of new businessmen looking for opportunities in India
both foreign (British)
as well as domestic merchants taking advantages of opportunities presented by the dismantling of the monopoly power that the East India Company enjoyed
one of the most important limitations of the penetration of the Indian market was the obstacles in transportation
most mercantile activity was restricted to coastal areas
thus the railroads had an important effect on India
began to take place in 1840s
a spur to the expansion of the cotton frontier
cotton business focused on Bombay
India had the coal which could fuel the locomotive which would transport the cotton
most of the businesses in mining and in cotton production was, in fact, Indian owned
but cotton was not the only export, due to penetration of the continent
also jute and tea
began to change the forces of power in India
away from Dehli
to the merchant magnates in the coastal port cities
the interiors get integrated to the coasts, and the coasts get integrated into the global market forces
this is part of the industrial revolution
part of the advent of the consumer revolution
these economic shifts coincide with a political process
Mughal Empire was in secular decomposition
had been composed of a constellation of forces that paid tribute
one by one they defected
by the middle of the 19th century, the Mughals were not just overwhelmed
not just by the power of the East India Company was able to impose on the region
but East India Company was facing arrival of new competition
Balkanization of India
Bahadur Shah Zafar
last Mughal Emperor emperor in name only
authority was limited only to the city of Delhi
following his involvement in the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the British exiled him to Rangoon in British-controlled Burma
Indian actors played an active role in decomposing an incumbent system such as the Mughal Empire
also reduced the power that the East India Company once enjoyed
it's not a case of the East India Company replacing the Mughal emperor
not a corporate takeover, but much more complicated
a figure who would collect taxes to make tributary payments to authorities, either to
East India Company
like tax farmers
would return commercial privileges
aligned themselves with local princes and merchants
influential in dismantling the power of the Mughal Empire and East India Company
The Earl of Dalhousie
1848 onwards
tried to
reorganize India
annex territories to their base in Bengal, in Calcutta
an immediate affront to the Mughal Empire
expand railroads into inner India
a dualistic society
some parts of India locked in an old, peasant world
some parts were much more modernized
higher productivity
market production
incorporated into the global, industrial arrangements
areas like the Punjab were booming
while the interiors of Bengal were beginning to languish
all of this a setting for a perfect storm for frictions and discontent
economic growth is not necessarily positive for everybody
there are losers involved politically, economically, and socially
as nations are forming in Europe and the Americas
and new empires are being constituted in Asia,
treaty ports were affecting China
these contradictory pressures were impinging on India